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Glossary

In this list, you will find explanations of some terms frequently used in connection with Information Security. These will be explained in as simple terms as possible.

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Darknet

Internet users can move almost totally anonymously on the Darknet. This area of the Internet is used by people who attach high importance to their privacy or live inside a repressive political system - but also by criminals.


Digital Signature

This is a digital seal which creates a unique connection between a natural person and an electronic document, which cannot be manipulated. In accordance with a certain calculation rule, a check sum (hash value) is computed from the document to be signed. The check sum is encrypted using the signatory’s secret key, and then sent to recipients together with the original document. Applying the same calculation rule, they will then create another hash value from the document. Recipients also encrypt the hash value using the public key of senders which has been created by senders to start with. If both hash values are identical, they can assume that the document has arrived on their system unaltered, and that the senders are actually who they purport to be.


Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS)

A DDoS attack is a distributed attack on a company’s website or server. Many computers (mostly those which are part of a bot net) bombard their target with innumerable requests during such an attack. The result: Due to overload, the attacked website or server relent to the pressure and are no longer available, or only to a limited degree. Blackmail attempts are generally the reason behind DDoS attacks. If no payment is made, criminals will threaten to repeat the attacks.


Domain

This is the name under which a resource (e. g. a website) can be reached. Every domain consists of several parts separated from each other by a full stop. The domain of this website is www.ebankingbutsecure.ch.


Drive-by Infection

This is the term used for a computer which becomes infected with malware solely by visiting a website. Websites affected often contain reputable offers and have been compromised beforehand to distribute malware. Simply calling up an affected website is sufficient to infect your computer.

In early April 2016, the «20 Minuten» magazine website was hit. Criminals were able to intrude into the web server and manipulate their website. A script with malicious effects then attempted to land visitors with Windows computers with malware.



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